Tiberinus the god is a rather majestic figure, who introduces himself in a long, long passage in the Aeneid , including:. In antiquity, ten bridges were built over the Tiber: eight spanned the main channel while two permitted access to the island; there was a shrine to Venus on the island. Mansions lined the riverside, and gardens leading to the river provided Rome with fresh fruits and vegetables. The Tiber was also a major thoroughfare for the Mediterranean trade of oil, wine, and wheat. The Tiber was an important military focus for hundreds of years.
The disputed crossing was at Fidenae, five miles upstream from Rome.
Attempts to tame the Tiber's floods were unsuccessful in classical times. While today the river is confined between high walls, during Roman times it regularly flooded. Tarquinius had the existing stream expanded and lined with stone in an attempt to control storm water—rain flowed downhill to the Tiber through the Cloaca, and it regularly flooded. In the third century BCE, the open channel was lined with stone and covered with a vaulted stone roof. Augustus had major repairs made to the system, and connected public baths and latrines, turning the Cloaca into a sewage management system.
The Romans at the time under the rule of the Etruscans sent her back to Porsena, but he was so impressed by her deed that he freed her and allowed her to take other of the hostages with her. Today, the Cloaca is still visible and manages a small amount of Rome's water. A cross-section longitudinal to the river course is reconstructed using all available borehole data location in Fig 1. Each panel show the stratigraphic setting at different ages; insets show the aggradation curve of the Tiber sediments thick colored line compared to the global sea-level curve from coral reefs data Peltier and Fairbanks, Different aggradational and erosional phases are numbered 1 to 4.
Figure D — Landscape evolution in Forum Boarium. Cross-sections showing the evolution of the landscape in the Forum Boarium area since yr BP A , and following the yr BP erosional phase B , until the formation of a new alluvial plain around yr BP C , based on the reported core chronostratigraphy. All 14C ages are newly reported, except the last four labelled SO which have been published previously [ 3 — 5 ].
Ceci and G. Caruso supervise the work for the Sovraintendenza. Work in the field is conducted by P.
Brocato and N. The borehole campaign was facilitated by M.
Floods of the Tiber in Ancient Rome (Ancient Society and History) [Gregory S. Aldrete] on onlausenpo.ml *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. While the remains. Floods of the Tiber in Ancient Rome; Gregory S. Aldrete; ; Book by: Johns Hopkins University Press; Series: Ancient Society and History.
Sevink and C. Nicosia were consultants on the fieldwork and their insights are gratefully acknowledged here. Moses and C. Ruiz assisted with sample sieving and the recovery of dating material while F. Wincza contributed to magnetic susceptibility measurements. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract The Tiber valley is a prominent feature in the landscape of ancient Rome and an important element for understanding its urban development. Download: PPT.
Materials and methods Permits All necessary permits were obtained for the described study, which complied with all relevant regulations. Chronostratigraphic investigations We analyzed sediments from 11 boreholes drilled in the Forum Boarium area, between the Capitoline Hill and the Palatine Hill see Fig 1 for location; geographical coordinates are provided in Table 1.
Table 1. Geographical coordinates of the boreholes performed for the present study. Cores The boreholes were drilled with variable depth from 15 to 53 m below the ground surface in the investigated area Fig 1. Chronology Chronological constraints were determined by a combination of 14 C and archaeological dating. Paleomagnetic sampling, laboratory procedures, and analysis. Geologic and geomorphologic setting of the city of Rome The city of Rome is located on the central Tyrrhenian Sea margin of Italy, where the principal NW-SE structural trend of the Apennines mountain range is interrupted by the N-S oriented external thrust fronts of the northern orogenic arc Olevano-Antrodoco line, inset in Fig 1.
Results Chronology The chronological framework of this study is drawn from a combination of radiocarbon and archaeological samples collected from the Forum Boarium coring survey and two additional samples collected in the Maxxi borehole [ 1 ] previously performed in the Tiber Valley north of the Forum Boarium Fig 1. Fig 3. Paleomagnetism Clay sections from four boreholes have been analyzed to obtain records of the past geomagnetic field and downcore variations of rock magnetic parameters to be used for comparison and lateral correlation among the sedimentary successions.
Fig 4. The occurrence of an unconformable, erosive contact at the top of the lithotype C sedimentary succession thin dashed line in Fig 2 , above which the markedly different lithotypes A and B are present, is attested by a number of factors: First, the overall oxidized condition characterizing the sedimentary succession above this contact, the higher energy depositional conditions, evidenced by the occurrence of several coarse grained layers, ranging from fine gravel to coarse sand; the overall grading upward features of this overlying succession lithoypes B1 and B2 , with gravel at the base incorporating organic matter of the substrate i.
Discussion Geochronological and archaeological constraints to sediment aggradation in the Tiber valley The aggradational history in response to the post-glacial sea-level rise along a N-S cross-section longitudinal to the Tiber River Valley, reconstructed using 14 C dates from previous work [ 2 , 22 , 24 ] and from the present study, is shown in Figure C in S1 File and described below. Reconstruction of the sedimentary and tectonic history at Forum Boarium 6.
Climate variability and hydrologic regime during the Holocene in central Italy. Landscape transformation and birth of the Tiber Island. Fig 6.
Step-by-step reconstruction of the evolution of the landscape in Forum Boarium at — yr BP, through the combined effect of sediment aggradation and fault activity. Fig 7. Step-by-step reconstruction of the evolution of the landscape in Forum Boarium at — yr BP. Supporting information. S1 File. Supplementary text and Figures.
S2 File. S3 File. Supplementary dataset - 14 C analyses. S4 File.
Permission to use the DEM. References 1.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters — View Article Google Scholar 2. Global and Planetary Change — View Article Google Scholar 3. Antiquity — View Article Google Scholar 5. Omobono: New Discoveries and Old Problems.
Leuven: Peeters. Radiocarbon — View Article Google Scholar 7. Kirschvink JL The least-squares line and plane and the analysis of palaeomagnetic data. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society — View Article Google Scholar 8. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems Q06Z View Article Google Scholar 9. Peccerillo A Plio-Quaternary volcanism in Italy: petrology, geochemistry, geodynamics. Berlin: Springer. Geophysical Journal International — View Article Google Scholar Marra F, Florindo F, Anzidei M, Sepe V Paleo-surfaces of glacio-eustatically forced aggradational successions in the coastal area of Rome: Assessing interplay between tectonics and sea-level during the last ten interglacials.
Quaternary Science Reviews 85— Luberti GM, Marra F, Florindo F A review of the stratigraphy of Rome Italy according to geochronologically and paleomagnetically constrained aggradational successions, glacio-eustatic forcing and volcano-tectonic processes. Quaternary International 40— Quaternary Science Reviews — Marra F Strike-slip faulting and block rotation: a possible triggering mechanism for lava flows in the Alban Hills?
Journal of Structural Geology — Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth 48— Marra F Low-magnitude earthquakes in Rome: structural interpretation and implications for the local stress field. Annals of Geophysics — In: Guidoboni E, editor. I Terremoti prima del Mille in Italia e nell'area Mediterranea.
Bologna: ING. Geologica Romana — Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie — Quaternary International — Journal of Roman Studies 1— Archaeometry — Journal of Roman Archaeology 7— Bullettino Comunale — Journal of Roman Archaeology — Quaternary International 93— Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology — The Holocene — Alpine and Mediterranean Quaternary 5— The Holocene 3— Scientific Reports 5: Climate of the Past 9: — Giraudi C Coarse sediments in Northern Apennine peat bogs and lakes: New data for the record of Holocene alluvial phases in peninsular Italy.
Quaternary International 57— The Holocene 87— Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 8: — Vegetation History and Archaeobotany — Pollen Spores — Journal of Paleolimnology — Geoarchaeology — Most users should sign in with their email address.
If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account? Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation.